Please read Dr. Crystal’s article in the American Journal of Epidemiologyy titled, “Spatiotemporal Analysis of the Association Between Pain Management Clinic Laws and Opioid Prescribing and Overdose Deaths.“
The United States is in the midst of a drug overdose epidemic. The drug overdose death rate in 2018 was 3.6 times higher than in 1999 and almost 70% of drug overdose deaths in 2018 involved an opioid. While the bulk of opioid overdoses in 2018 involved nonmethadone synthetic opioids (e.g., fentanyl) or heroin, almost a third involved prescription opioids. Further, individuals often use prescription opioids before they initiate heroin or illegally manufactured synthetic opioids, making prevention of prescription opioid misuse a priority to reduce all opioid overdoses.
One response to reducing prescription opioid misuse has focused on reducing inappropriate, high-volume opioid prescribing without clear medical need in certain pain management clinics (PMCs), which were a major source of opioids diverted into the illegal drug supply. PMC laws were enacted in 12 states, imposing operational, personnel, inspection, and other requirements on facilities that specialize in pain treatment. To read the full article.
Spatiotemporal Analysis of the Association Between Pain Management Clinic Laws and Opioid Prescribing and Overdose Deaths. Cerdá M, Wheeler-Martin K, Bruzelius E, Ponicki W, Gruenewald P, Mauro C, Crystal S, Davis CS, Keyes K, Hasin D, Rudolph KE, Martins SS. Am J Epidemiol. 2021 Dec 1;190(12):2592-2603. PMID: 34216209 PMCID: PMC8796812 DOI: 1093/aje/kwab192