Please read Dr. Geller’s article in BMC Medical Informatics and Decision Making titled, “Missing lateral relationships in top-level concepts of an ontology“
Background Ontologies house various kinds of domain knowledge in formal structures, primarily in the form of concepts and the associative relationships between them. Ontologies have become integral components of many health information processing environments. Hence, quality assurance of the conceptual content of any ontology is critical. Relationships are foundational to the definition of concepts. Missing relationship errors (i.e., unintended omissions of important definitional relationships) can have a deleterious effect on the quality of an ontology. An abstraction network is a structure that overlays an ontology and provides an alternate, summarization view of its contents. To read the full article.
Missing lateral relationships in top-level concepts of an ontology. BMC Med Inform Decis Mak. 2020 Dec 15; 20(Suppl 10):305. doi: 10.1186/s12911-020-01319-3 PMID: 33319709PMCID: PMC7737264